Both in the summary while the paraphrase we’ve quoted Curtis’s “clustering together in a ball that is dense” a phrase that lies in the centre of her description of custom assignment writing wintering honeybees. For people to spell it out this clustering in almost any language other than Curtis’s could be pointless since her description is admirably precise.
Quoting Authoritative Language
You will also want to make use of quotations that lend authority to your work. When quoting a specialist or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you raise up your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, along with your readers will have a tendency to perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you’ve made, as well as your statement gets to be more credible to your readers. As an example, in an essay you could make use of a passage from Thoreau’s Walden that you might write on the importance of reading well:
It “is a exercise that is noble” writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, “and something that may task your reader more than any exercise which the customs associated with day esteem. A training is required by it like the athletes underwent. Books needs to be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.”
By quoting a famous philosopher and essayist on the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Not only would you regard reading to be an art and craft that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, certainly one of our most influential thinkers that are american. The quotation has elevated the amount of your projects.
You may want to quote to advantage figures that are well-respected’ve written or spoken concerning the subject of the paper. Let me reveal a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler relates to a physicist and an astronaut:
a couple of scientists – notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth’s radiation belts – have decried the expense associated with the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive attention to unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this could be much more cost-effective.
Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle that is former, says, “It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it’s about $500 million a year.”
Note, first, that within the paragraph that is first has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. Into the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend legitimacy and authority to your article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both making sure that their qualifications to speak about the subject are known to all:
James Van Allen, discoverer associated with the Earth’s radiation belts .
Joseph Allen, physicist and shuttle astronaut that is former .
The phrases in italics are known as appositives. Their function is always to rename the nouns they follow by giving explicit, identifying detail. Any details about a person that could be expressed into the following sentence pattern could be converted to an phrase that is appositive
James Van Allen is the discoverer associated with Earth’s radiation belts.
James Van Allen has decried the cost of this space program that is manned
James Van Allen, discoverer of this Earth’s radiation belts, has decried the cost associated with the manned space program.
Use appositives to determine authors that you quote.
Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences
Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need
while you’ve seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you’ve run into listed here, written by Robert Hutchins, former president for the University of Chicago:
If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni together with public, it really is a whole lot worse when it comes to universites and colleges themselves. They would like to be educational institutions, however they can not. The story associated with the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was which he hadn’t learned to learn and write is probably exaggerated. But we ought to admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, “friends,” presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college shouldn’t be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing as well as the double educational standard cannot exist with no knowledge together with tacit approval, at the least, for the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted if you are paying them for serving as “faculty representatives” in the college athletic boards. 4
Suppose that from this paragraph that is entire find a gem, a quotable grouping of words which will enliven your discussion. You might quote area of the following sentence:
These gentry often disregard the known fact that a college really should not be enthusiastic about a fullback that is a half-wit.
Incorporating the Quotation in to the Flow of your very own Sentence
Once you’ve selected the passage you intend to quote, work the material into the paper in as natural and fluid a fashion as you are able to. Here’s the way we would quote Hutchins:
Robert Hutchins, a former president regarding the University of Chicago, asserts that “a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.”
Keep in mind that we have used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we also’ve used just the area of the paragraph – a clause that is single that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.
Avoiding Freestanding Quotations
A quoted sentence should never stand by itself – such as the following example:
Various people from the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. “These gentry often forget the proven fact that a college shouldn’t be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.” But this types of thinking is bad for the university as well as worse for the athletes.
Even in the event that you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you ought not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, due to the fact effect is often jarring towards the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in a few other an element of the sentence – beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write:
in accordance with Robert Hutchins, “These gentry often overlook the known fact that a college shouldn’t be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.”
“These gentry,” asserts Robert Hutchins, “often disregard the undeniable fact that a college shouldn’t be interested in a fullback that is a half-wit.”
Another alternative would be to introduce a quotation that is sentence-long a colon:
But Robert Hutchins disagrees: “These gentry often disregard the proven fact that a college should not be thinking about a fullback that is a half-wit.”
Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as with the examples above).
When attributing sources, attempt to vary the conventional “states,” “writes,” “says,” and so forth. Other, stronger verbs you may consider: “asserts,” “argues,” “maintains,” “insists,” “asks,” as well as “wonders.”
Using Ellipsis Marks quotations that are using made somewhat complicated when you wish to quote the beginning and end of a passage yet not its middle – as was the scenario as soon as we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here is area of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences:
To read well, that is, to read true books in a spirit that is true is a noble exercise, and another which will task your reader a lot more than any exercise which the customs regarding the day esteem. It needs an exercise for instance the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the very existence for this object. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly because they were written. 5